Diabetes is a widespread disease affecting almost 10% of the adult population in Western countries. It has a high mortality rate due to direct and secondary causes relating to the various complications associated with it, especially the cardiovascular system.
Diabetes is a chronic disease due to a defect in the function or production of the hormone insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas whose purpose is to enhance/enable the use of glucose for the energy processes occurring in the body’s cells. Reduced/inadequate use of glucose in the body leads to an increased concentration of glucose in the blood (hyperglycaemia), which progressively damages many organs and systems.
Two clinical forms are commonly distinguished: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.